Wednesday, May 12, 2010

Endocrinology, Toxicology, and Drug Testing


When I've first heard of the word endocrinology, the first thing that pops out of my mind are hormones.

Thereby, we can briefly define that endocrinology is one of the field of clinical chemistry wherein the types, characteristic, and functions of hormones are studied, analyzed, and interpreted to be used for clinical application or intervention.

First, Lets talk about hormones. Basically, hormones are chemicals that were released by an organ such as the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, in the blood that will travel to its target cell and binds to its receptor and thereby accomplish its function in it.

According to Bidy Kulkarni They are currently divided in three types which are protein hormones, aromatic amines, and the steroid hormones.

Growth, metabolism, and reproduction are some of the job of that hormones facilitate. They can be up-regulated or down-regulated depending on the need of the body.

Like in the blood, homeostasis in the production of hormones is also a big factor among them and it is a must to be.

For better understanding, a presentation was linked below for you.


Mainly, a person is said to be poisoned or toxicated when he has ingested a poisonous substance like chemicals, or hazardous elements. But as we tackle the concept of toxicology, our minds will be more broaden as we discuss the toxicity of this matter.

Parcelsus is the one who started the field of toxicology in the sixteenth century and also credited as "The Father of Toxicology.

According to Clinical Chemistry: Theory, Analysis, Correlation by Lawrence A. Kaplan and Amadeo Pesce, toxicology is concerned with the physical and chemical properties of posion, their physiologcial and behavioral effects on living organism, and treatment.

photo by:Dutchy131

Toxicology is broad practice wherein it was divided now to three subfields, which is industrial toxicology, clinical toxicology, and forensic toxicology.

Just as Parcelsus said that all things are toxic, we can now refer that there are levels of toxicity that a person might encounter upon ingesting a particular toxic substance.

Toxicity are depend to certain factors such as time, amount or concentration, route of administration. These factors may give us information what will be the further condition of a person will be experiencing and how long it also may take.

Drug Testing

Nowadays, drug testing is done rumphantly in the world everywhere for many kinds of purpose. Some are used in licensure, in athletics, and others for crime investigations.

Drug testing is the examination of certain body fluids that may contain a specific metabolite that is pursued to be specifically obtained.

Example of this drugs are barbiturates, cocaine, marijuana, and etc. These drugs are tested for their specific metabolites, which has also specific time wherein they will be currently present in the fluid to being analyzed.

There are a lots of procedure in performing the drug testing. It can be done using urine, saliva, blood and even sweat.

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Normal Values and Clinical Significance of Sodium in EFP

Emission Flame Photometry

Emission flame spectrophomter is used to several electrolytes like sodium and potassium measure through the principle of spectrophotmetry. Likewise, we have several range of values that we follow to be able to interpret results and correlate it to possible conditions.

Normal Values for Sodium

Normal= 135 mmol/l or Range between 136-146 mmol/l

Hypernatremia= > or = 150 mmol/l
Hyponatremia= < 130 mmol/l

Gestating Parents
From Week 35-38 137 mmol/l or Range between 134-140 mmol/l
From Week 27-30 136 mmo;/l or RAnge between 134-138 mmol/l
From Week 15-18 135 mmol/l or Range between 132-139 mmol/l

Clinical Significance:

Sodium plays a vital role in our system that aids primarily in water balance inside the bode and also inside and outside the cell being called as the major extracellular cation component. Nerve impulses also are made possible by the electrostatic charge made by the sodium and potassium mechanism. Thereby, an imbalance of the sodium content of a cell or a system as whole can be an affect not only to the cell but also to other elctrolytes that are related to it.

Hypernatremia- an increase in one's sodium content

Common causes:
1. loss of thirst respones
2. diabetes insipidus (defective renal concentrating mechanism)
3. loss of free water from other sources
4. High Sodium intake
5. diarrhea
6. nephrotic syndrome

Hyponatremia- a decrease in one's sodium content

Common cause:
1. excessive water accumulation
2. diarrhea
3. vomiting
4. syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
5. acidosis
6. salt-losing nephritis